The biggest blackout in U.S. history occurred on Aug. 14, 2003, and left over 50 million people without power in the northeast and Canada due to a software bug in an Ohio energy company’s control room. What should’ve been a manageable blackout turned into a widespread problem that proves blackouts can happen anywhere and to anyone.
Before a Blackout
To prepare for a blackout you should do the following:
Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan. Please contact E.B. Cohen for a sample family communications plan or help putting together an emergency kit checklist.
Follow energy conservation measures to keep your use of electricity as low as possible. This can help power companies avoid imposing rolling blackouts, which are used in severe circumstances when operating reserves fall below a certain threshold.
Fill plastic containers with water and place them in the refrigerator and freezer if there's room. Leave about an inch of space inside each one, because water expands as it freezes. This chilled or frozen water will help keep food cold during a temporary power outage by replacing air that can warm up quickly with water or ice that stays cold for several hours without additional refrigeration.
Be aware that most medication that requires refrigeration can be kept in a closed refrigerator for several hours without a problem. If you’re not sure whether your medication will keep in a closed refrigerator, check with your physician or pharmacist.
Keep your car tank at least half full, because gas stations rely on electricity to power their pumps.
Know where the manual release lever of your electric garage door opener is located and how to operate it. Garage doors can be heavy, so you may need help to lift it.
Keep a key to your house with you if you regularly use the garage as the primary means of entering your home, in case the garage door will not open.
People with Disabilities and Other Access and Functional Needs
Call your power company before rolling blackouts occur if you use a battery-operated wheelchair, life-support system or other power-dependent equipment. Many utility companies keep a list and map of the locations of power-dependent customers in case of an emergency. Ask them what alternatives are available in your area. Contact the customer service department of your local utility companies to find out if this service is available in your community.
Have an extra battery on hand if you use a motorized wheelchair or scooter. A car battery can also be used with a wheelchair, but will not last as long as a wheelchair's deep-cycle battery. If available, have a lightweight manual wheelchair for backup.
Have a talking or Braille clock or large-print timepiece with extra batteries if you are blind or have a visual disability.
Consider getting a small, portable battery-operated television set if you are deaf or hard of hearing. Emergency broadcasts may give information in American Sign Language (ASL) or open captioning.
During a Blackout
Use only flashlights for emergency lighting. NEVER use candles during a blackout or power outage due to extreme risk of fire.
Keep refrigerator and freezer doors closed to keep your food as fresh as possible. If you must eat food that was refrigerated or frozen, check it carefully for signs of spoilage.
Turn off or disconnect appliances, equipment or electronics in use when the power went out. Power may return with momentary "surges” or “spikes” that can damage computers as well as motors in appliances like the air conditioner, refrigerator, washer or furnace.
Do not run a generator inside your home or garage.
Do not connect a generator to your home's electrical system. If you use a generator, connect the equipment you want to run directly to the outlets on the generator.
Listen to a battery- or generator-powered radio or television tuned to a local station for updated information.
Leave on one light so that you'll know when your power returns.
Use a landline telephone, cellphone or two-way radio to communicate—these do not require electricity from the power company to work. Use the phone for emergencies only.
Do not call 911 for information—call only to report a life-threatening emergency.
Take steps to stay cool if it is hot outside. In intense heat when the power may be off for a long time, consider going to a movie theater, shopping mall or “cooling shelter” that may be open in your community. If you remain at home, move to the lowest level of your home, since cool air sinks. Wear lightweight, light-colored clothing. Drink plenty of water, even if you do not feel thirsty.
Put on layers of warm clothing if it is cold outside. Never burn charcoal for heating or cooking indoors. Never use your oven as a source of heat. If the power may be out for a prolonged period, plan to go to another location (such as the home of a relative or friend, or a public facility) that has heat to keep warm.
Provide plenty of fresh, cool water for your pets.
Eliminate unnecessary travel, especially by car. Traffic signals will stop working during an outage, creating traffic congestion.
Remember that equipment such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and elevators may not work during a power outage.
After a Blackout
Throw out unsafe food:
If you are not sure food is cold enough, take its temperature with the food thermometer. Throw out any foods (meat, poultry, fish, eggs and leftovers) that have been exposed to temperatures higher than 40° F (4° C) for two hours or more, and any food that has an unusual odor, color or texture, or feels warm to touch. When in doubt, throw it out!
Never taste food or rely on appearance or odor to determine its safety. Some foods may look and smell fine, but if they have been at room temperature too long, bacteria causing food-borne illnesses can start growing quickly. Some types of bacteria produce toxins that cannot be destroyed by cooking.
If food in the freezer is colder than 40° F and has ice crystals on it, you can refreeze it.
If the blackout has lasted an extended period of time (several days or more), test your water supply. In addition to having a bad odor, and taste, water from questionable sources may be contaminated by a variety of microorganisms, including bacteria and parasites that cause diseases such as dysentery, cholera, typhoid and hepatitis. All water of uncertain purity should be treated before use.
The American Red Cross recommends the following steps for treating water after a power outage or other emergency if the water's purity is uncertain:
Filter the water using a piece of cloth or a coffee filter to remove solid particles.
Bring it to a rolling boil for about one full minute.
Let it cool for at least 30 minutes. Water must be cool or the chlorine treatment described below will be useless.
Add 16 drops of liquid chlorine bleach per gallon of water, or eight drops per 2-liter bottle of water. Stir to mix. Sodium hypochlorite of the concentration of 5.25 percent to 6 percent should be the only active ingredient in the bleach. There should not be any added soap or fragrances. A major bleach manufacturer has also added sodium hydroxide as an active ingredient, which the manufacturer states does not pose a health risk for water treatment.
Let stand 30 minutes.
If it smells of chlorine, you can use it. If it does not smell of chlorine, add 16 more drops of chlorine bleach per gallon of water (or eight drops per 2-liter bottle of water), let stand 30 minutes, and smell it again. If it smells of chlorine, you can use it. If it does not smell of chlorine, discard it and find another source of water.
Energy Conservation Recommendations
Set your thermostat at 68° F or lower in winter and at 78° F or higher in summer. A 75-degree setting uses 18 percent more electricity and a 72-degree setting uses 39 percent more electricity. A 78-degree setting allows for sufficient cooling while still conserving electric power. Similarly, for every degree you lower your heat in the 60-degree to 70-degree range, you'll save up to 5 percent on heating costs. Consider installing a programmable thermostat so that you can have your furnace or air conditioning run only when you are at home. Most power is consumed by heating and cooling, so adjusting the temperature on your thermostat is the biggest energy conservation measure you can take.
Use an air conditioner only when you are home. If you want to cool down a room before you arrive home, set a timer to have it switch on no more than 30 minutes before you arrive home.
Only use appliances with heavy electrical loads (dishwashers, washers, dryers) early in the morning or late at night.
Do not set the thermostat at a colder-than-normal setting when you turn on your air conditioner. It won't cool your home any faster and could result in unnecessary energy expenditure and expense.
Open draperies and shades on south-facing windows during the day in the winter to allow warm sunlight to enter your home. Close them at night to reduce the chill. Keep window coverings closed during the day in summer.
Clean or replace furnace and air conditioner filters regularly. Dirty filters restrict airflow and increase energy use.
Clean warm-air registers, baseboard heaters and radiators as needed; make sure they're not blocked by furniture, carpeting or drapes.
Turn off lights, appliances and computers when not in use. Avoid using a "screen saver" on your computer monitor. Simply turn off the monitor when you won't be using the computer for a while. Set computers, monitors, printers and copiers to their energy saving feature and turn them off in the evening. It's no longer true that computer equipment is damaged by turning it off and on.
Close windows when the heating or cooling system is on.
Caulk windows and doors to keep air from leaking, and replace old windows with new, energy-efficient windows.
Purchase energy-efficient appliances and lights. Look for the ENERGY STAR® labels. ENERGY STAR® is a program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designed to help consumers identify energy-efficient appliances and products.
Minimize "leaking energy." Many TVs, VCRs, chargers, computer peripherals and other appliances use electricity even when switched "off." These "standby losses" can add up. If possible, unplug electronic devices and chargers that have a block-shaped transformer on the plug when not in use.
Plug and seal the chimney flue if you never use your fireplace. If you do use it, keep your fireplace damper closed unless a fire is going. Keeping the damper open is like keeping a 48-inch window open during the winter—it allows warm air to go right up the chimney.
Wrap the water heater with an insulation jacket, available at most building supplies retailers.
Wash only full loads of clothes and clean the dryer's lint trap after each use. Use the cold water setting on your clothes washer when you can. Using cold water reduces your washer's energy use by 75 percent.
Wash full loads of dishes in the dishwasher and use the "lite" cycle. If possible, use the "rinse only" cycle and turn off the "high temperature" rinse option. When the regular wash cycle is done, open the dishwasher door to allow the dishes to air dry.
Replace incandescent light bulbs with energy-efficient compact fluorescent lights.
In addition to insuring your home or business, E.B. Cohen is committed to helping you and your loved ones stay safe when disaster strikes. If you would like more information on developing an emergency plan or building a disaster supply kit, please contact us at (973) 403-9500 or www.cohenins.com today.